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APA Style

  • Patron institution: American Psychological Association

  • It specifies the appearance of the citation in the author-date format, and it also specifies the appearance of the Bibliography

  • APA Style Manual - 7th edition

APA Style referencing method

The following is an excerpt from the APA Style Manual

  • Within APA Style, only one way of in-text referencing is used, namely Author–Date.

  • The bibliography is then sorted alphabetically by reference, usually by name.

  • When repeating a citation, the entire citation is listed within the APA Style, the abbreviation “ditto” is NOT used.

  • Do not use abbreviations such as Jr. in name references.

The reference always has two parts:

  • A reference, which is usually the author's name

  • The date of publication of the work

In-text references can be in:

  • Parentheses - example (Alexander, 2018) - more authors are combined with the character &

    Falsely balanced news coverage can distort the public’s perception of expert consensus on an issue (Koehler, 2016)

  • Narrative (directly in the text) – for example: Alexander, 2018 - more authors are combined with the conjunction “and”

    Koehler (2016) noted the dangers of falsely balanced news coverage.

Basic ways of writing in-text references

Type of author

Citation in parentheses

Narrative citation

One author

Luna, 2020)

(Luna (2020)

Two authors

(Salas & D'Agostino, 2020)

Salas a D'Agostino (2020)

Three and more authors

(Martin et al., 2020)

Martin et al. (2020)

Group author with abbreviation*

First citation

(Národní institut pro duševní zdraví [NIDZ], 2020)

Národní institut pro duševní zdraví (NIDZ, 2020)

Following citations

(NIDZ, 2020)

NIDZ (2020)

Group author without abbreviation

(Stanford University, 2020)

Stanford University (2020)

* Define the group author abbreviation only once in the text, choosing either parentheses or narrative format. Then use an abbreviation for all group references in the text.

Exceptions to basic citation styles in the text

  • If several works by one author published in the same year appear in the text, use lowercase letters to distinguish between them

    (Blondaux & O’Hanrahan, 2018a)

    (Blondaux & O’Hanrahan, 2018b)

  • If different authors have the same last name, use the initials to distinguish between them

  • Do not use abbreviations such as Jr. in references.

Date of publication in the reference

  • The year in the reference must correspond to the year in the bibliography

  • Even if the source offers a more specific date (e.g. day, month, year), use only the year

  • For works without a specified date, use the abbreviation n.d.

  • For works that have not yet been published, use the wording “in print”

General rules for creating bibliographic citations

  • Make sure that the spelling of the authors' names in the bibliography matches the spelling in the corresponding references in the text.

  • Cite only the works you have read and the ideas that relate to the topic you are writing about.

  • If possible, always cite primary sources, cite secondary sources only rarely.

  • Cite the sources of all the data and ideas you provide.

  • Cite the sources and document all the facts and figures that you mention that are not commonly known.

  • To cite a specific part of the source, cite the work with the author's date and information about the specific part.

  • Even when the sources cannot be cited (e.g. because it is a personal communication), still include them in the text (but avoid using online sources that can no longer be displayed).

Creating bibliographic citations

The bibliographic citation contains the following elements; for more on individual elements see the Manual

  • Author - the person or institution (or combination) responsible for the content of the work

  • Date of publication of the work, it can be in the form of only date, year, month, day; year and month, or some range

  • Title of the work itself or part of the work (article in a journal or collection). The title of an individual work or a specific part is written in italics for clarity.

  • The source indicates where the work can be found. In the case of articles, it can be, for example, the title or DOI of the journal, URL. In the case of books - the publisher, URL, database, etc.

Samples of bibliographic citations in APA Style


Bawden, D., & Robinson, L. (2017). Úvod do informační vědy. Flow.

Sapolsky, R. M. (2017). Behave: The biology of humans at our best and worst. Penguin Books.

Svendsen, S., & Løber, L. (2020). The big picture/Academic writing: The one-hour guide (3rd digital ed.). Hans Reitzel Forlag. https://thebigpicture-academicwriting.digi.hansreitzel.dk/

Article in a journal:

Švec, F. (2021). Quo vadis kapalinová chromatografie? Chemické listy, 115(4), 185–187.

Grady, J. S., Her, M., Moreno, G., Perez, C., & Yelinek, J. (2019). Emotions in storybooks: A comparison of storybooks that represent ethnic and racial groups in the United States. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(3), 207–217. https://doi.org/10.1037/ppm0000185


Charles University. Licensing. (2021). Open Science Support Centre. http://openscience.cuni.cz/OSCIEN-59.html

World Health Organization. (2018, May 24). The top 10 causes of death. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/the-top-10-causes-of-death

Dissertation thesis:

Králová, K. (2020). Fast Goes the Fleeting Time: The Miscellaneous Concepts of Time in Different Old Norse Genres and their Causes [Faculty of Arts, Charles University]. Charles University Digital Repository. https://is.cuni.cz/webapps/zzp/detail/142987/52898140

Facebook post

News From Science. (2019, June 21). Are you a fan of astronomy? Enjoy reading about what scientists have discovered in our solar system—and beyond? This [Image attached] [Status update]. Facebook. https://www.facebook.com/ScienceNOW/photos/a.117532185107/10156268057260108/?type=3&theater

More examples

Last change: November 30, 2021 19:43 
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